What Is a Centrifugal Pump?

Jan. 30, 2021
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What Is a Centrifugal Pump?

Centrifugal pumps operate by transferring rotational energy from one or more driven rotors called impellers. The action of the impeller increases the velocity and pressure of the fluid and directs it to the outlet of the pump. Centrifugal pumps are well known due to their simple design and are easy to operate and maintain.

What is a centrifugal pump?

A centrifugal pump is a mechanical device designed to move fluid by rotating energy from one or more driven rotors called impellers. The fluid enters the rapidly rotating impeller along its axis and is discharged by centrifugal force along its circumference through the blade tip of the impeller. The action of the impeller increases the velocity and pressure of the fluid and directs it to the outlet of the pump. The pump housing is specially designed to compress the flow from the pump inlet and direct it to the impeller, where it is then slowed and controlled prior to discharge.

centrifugal pump

What are the limitations of centrifugal pumps?

The effective operation of centrifugal foam pump depends on the constant high-speed rotation of its impeller. For high viscosity feeds, centrifugal pumps are becoming less efficient: there is greater drag and higher pressure is required to maintain a specific flow rate. Therefore, in general, centrifugal pumps are suitable for pumping applications with low pressure, large flow rates, and viscosity of liquids from 0.1 to 200 cP.

Mud such as mud or high viscosity oil can cause excessive wear and overheating, leading to damage and premature damage. Positive displacement pumps typically operate at fairly low speeds and are less prone to these problems.

Any shear-sensitive pumping medium (emulsion, slurry, or biofilm separation) will also be damaged by the high speed of the centrifugal pump impeller. In this case, the positive displacement pump preferably has a lower speed.

Another limitation is that, unlike positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps cannot provide suction during drying: they must first be filled with the pumped fluid. Therefore, centrifugal pumps are not suitable for any application of intermittent supply. In addition, if the feed pressure is variable, the centrifugal pump will produce variable flow; Positive displacement pumps are insensitive to pressure changes and will provide a constant output.Therefore, positive displacement pumps are preferred in applications requiring precise metering.

What is the main purpose of a centrifugal pump?

Centrifugal pumps are commonly used in industrial, agricultural and domestic applications to pump water, solvents, organics, oils, acids, bases and any "diluted" liquids. In fact, there is a centrifugal pump design that is suitable for virtually any application involving low viscosity fluids.

The centrifugal pump design provides a simple and low-cost solution for most low pressure, high flow pumping applications involving low viscosity fluids such as water, solvents, chemicals and light oils. Typical applications include water supply and recycling, irrigation, and the transfer of chemicals from petrochemical plants. Positive displacement pumps are preferred for applications involving high-viscosity fluids (such as heavy oils and slurries) (especially at high pressures), complex feedstocks (such as emulsions, food or biofilds), and where precise metering is required. 

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